- The Sabbath and circumcision were the epitome of Pharisaic law-keeping.
- The Sabbath is based in Scripture.
- God modeled it (Genesis 2:2-3).
- The Law commanded it (Exodus 20:9-10).
- Isaiah confirmed it (Isaiah 58:13-14).
- But they had developed extra-biblical regulations to define their Sabbath-keeping.
“heads of grain”
- The issue was not that they were stealing grain.
- Eating the grain was expressly allowed by the Law (Deuteronomy 23:24-25).
“not lawful on the Sabbath”
- Violations of the Mishnah:
- Reaping: they plucked or picked the grain.
- Threshing: the rubbed husk from the grain.
- Winnowing: after rubbing, the husk would have blown away.
- Preparing: evidenced by their eating the grain.
“what David did”
1 Samuel 21:3-6
- David requested bread from the priest in the tabernacle.
- The only bread that was available was holy bread.
- The old bread was given to the priests (when the new bread was placed on the table each week).
- The priest gave it to David for his men.
- The bread was intended to be a blessing for those who served the Lord.
- Rigid, legalistic application the Law would have been contrary to the purpose of the Law.
“lord the Sabbath”
- Jesus is not rescinding the Fourth Commandment.
- He is correcting their misrepresentation of it.
- There is a moral principle in the Forth Commandment.
- The moral principle is not:
- about schedules.
- about percentages (1/7 of the week).
- simply about restricting otherwise permissible activity.
- The moral principle is (according to Isaiah 58:13-14):
- to delight in the LORD.
- to honor or glorify the LORD.
- to prefer the LORD over seeking your own pleasure.
- The commandment was given as a framework in which to accomplish this.
“to find a reason”
- The Pharisees wanted Jesus to break the Sabbath.
- Their desire to accuse him was greater than their desire to honor the Sabbath.
“to do good or harm”
- Which is consistent with the moral principle of the Sabbath?
- The Pharisees stubbornly rejected a truly God-honoring Sabbath.
- Jesus, not the Pharisees, honored the Sabbath and kept it holy.